Rebuilding “we ourselves” after the pandemic: Intergenerational dialogue as a protective factor against loneliness and social isolation in older adults


  • Rosita Deluigi University of Macerata
  • Aurora Ricci University of Bologna



loneliness, social isolation, intergenerational programmes, older adults, Covid-19 pandemic


The compulsory measures implemented by governments to control the COVID-19 pandemic affected the global population’s physical, psychological, and behavioural health. In particular, the pandemic further exacerbated social isolation and loneliness among older adults, and the interaction between ageism and the pandemic heightened the sense of loneliness and social disconnection among older adults, necessitating work to increase social cohesion. This paper aims to explore the impact of the pandemic on older people, focusing on the social dimension and intergenerational education as protective factors capable of mitigating the negative effects of the pandemic on social isolation in the elderly and thus preventing its consequences. Finally, several perspectives for rebuilding a democratic community alliance are reflected upon. The revision of community dynamics from an intergenerational perspective can give renewed value to the interweaving of biographies and social projects in an inclusive and participatory way.


Akhter‐Khan, S. C., & Au, R. (2020). Why loneliness interventions are unsuccessful: A call for precision health. Advances in Geriatric Medicine and Research, 2(3). 10.20900/agmr20200016

Améry, J. (2013). Rivolta e rassegnazione. Sull’invecchiare. Bollati Boringhieri.

Asante, S. K. B., & Tuffour, G. (2022). Social isolation and loneliness in older adults: Why proper conceptualization matters. J. Ageing Longev., 2(3), 206–213.

Ayalon, L., Diehl, M., Diehl, M., Levy, B. R., Neupert, S. D., Rothermund, K., Tesch-Römer, C., & Wahl, H. (2020). Aging in times of the COVID-19 pandemic: Avoiding ageism and fostering intergenerational solidarity. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 76(2), e49–e52.

Baarck, J., D`hombres, B. and Tintori, G., Loneliness in Europe before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, European Commission, 2021, JRC126802.

Badcock, J. C., Holt‐Lunstad, J., Garcia, E., Bombaci, P., & Lim, M. H. (2022). Position statement: Addressing social isolation and loneliness and the power of human connection. Global Initiative on Loneliness and Connection (GILC). Avalaible online at: (Last access 13 September 2023).

Baltes, P.B., Reese, H.W., & Lipsitt, L.P. (1980). Life-Span Developmental Psychology. Annual Review of Psychology. 31(1980), 65-110.

Barbosa, M. R., Campinho, A. L. M., & Silva, G. M. (2020). “Give and Receive”: The impact of an intergenerational program on institutionalized children and older adults. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 19(3), 283–304.

Barreto, M., Victor, C. R., Hammond, C., Eccles, A. M., Richins, M. T., & Qualter, P. (2021). Loneliness around the world: Age, gender, and cultural differences in loneliness. Personality and Individual Differences, 169, 110066.

Baschiera, B., Deluigi, R., & Luppi, E. (2014). Educazione intergenerazionale. Prospettive, progetti e metodologie didattico-formative per promuovere la solidarietà fra le generazioni. FrancoAngeli.

Bekkers, R., Völker, B., Gaag, M. V. D., & Flap, H. (2007). Social networks of participants in voluntary associations. In N. Lin, & B. H. Erickson (Eds.), Social capital: An international research program (pp. 185-205). Oxford University Press.

Beller, J., & Wagner, A. (2018). Loneliness, social isolation, their synergistic interaction, and mortality. Health Psychology, 37(9), 808.

Berlingieri, F., Colagrossi, M. and Mauri, C., Loneliness and social connectedness: insights from a new EU-wide survey, European Commission, 2023, JRC133351. Retrieved from: (Last access 13 September 2023).

Bhandari, P., & Paswan, B. (2020). Lifestyle behaviours and mental health outcomes of elderly: Modification of socio-economic and physical health effects. Ageing International, 46(1), 35–69.

Boamah, S. A., Weldrick, R., Lee, T. J., & Taylor, N. (2021). Social isolation among older adults in long-term care: A scoping review. Journal of Aging and Health, 33(7–8), 618–632.

Boström, A-K., & Schmidt-Hertha, B. (2017). Intergenerational relationships and lifelong learning. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 15(1), 1-3.

Braveman, P., & Gottlieb, L. (2017). The social determinants of health: It’s time to consider the causes of the causes. Public Health Reports, 129(2), 19-31.

Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M. K., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Research-neuroimaging, 287, 112934.

Cattan, M. and White, M. (1998) Developing evidence based health promotion for older people: A systematic review and survey of health promotion interventions targeting social isolation and loneliness among older people. Internet Journal of Health Promotion, 13, 1-9.

Cattan, M., White, M., Bond, J., & Learmouth, A. (2005). Preventing social isolation and loneliness among older people: A systematic review of health promotion interventions. Ageing & Society, 25(1), 41–67.

CDU/CSU & SPD (2018). Ein neuer Aufbruch für Europa. Eine neue Dynamik für Deutschland. Ein neuer Zusammenhalt für unser Land. Available at: (Last access 23 September 2023).

Cené, C. W., Beckie, T. M., Sims, M., Suglia, S. F., Aggarwal, B., Moise, N., Jiménez, M. C., Gaye, B., & McCullough, L.D. (2022). Effects of objective and perceived social isolation on cardiovascular and brain health: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Journal of the American Heart Association, 11(16), e026493.

Chianese, G. & Cornacchia, M. (2022). Ri-connettere generazioni. L’apprendimento intergenerazionale per sviluppare nuovi modelli di welfare e città per tutte le età. Pensa Multimedia.

Clair, R., Gordon, M., Kroon, M. et al. (2021). The effects of social isolation on well-being and life satisfaction during pandemic. Humanit Soc Sci Commun, 8, 28.

Cornwell, E. Y., & Waite, L. J. (2009). Social disconnectedness, perceived isolation, and health among older adults. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50(1), 31–48.

Cotterell, N., Buffel, T., & Phillipson, C. (2018). Preventing social isolation in older people. Maturitas, 113, 80–84. https://doi-org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2018.04.014

Cruz-Saco, M.A. & Zelenev, S. (eds) (2010). Intergenerational Solidarity. Palgrave Macmillan.

Das, S., Arun, P., Rohilla, R. et al. (2021). Anxiety and depression in the elderly due to COVID-19 pandemic: a pilot study. Middle East Curr Psychiatry 28, 67. 00145-1

De Jong Gierveld, J., Van Tilburg, T., & Dykstra, P. (2006). Loneliness and social isolation. In A. Vangelisti & D. Perlman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of personal relationships (Cambridge Handbooks in Psychology, pp. 485-500). Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511606632.027

Deluigi, R. (2014). Abitare l’invecchiamento. Itinerari pedagogici tra cura e progetto. Mondadori.

Deluigi, R. (2015). Educational pathways between intergenerational dialogue and active citizenship. Lifelong Lifewide Learning 10, 25(2015), 1-17.

Deluigi, R. & Trotta, I. (2022). Dalla solitudine del Covid-19 alle parole interconnesse: progetti e percorsi pedagogici per la prevenzione dall’isolamento sociale nell’età senile. Journal of Health Care Education in Practice, 4/1(2022), 60-70.

Deluigi, R., (a cura di) (2016). Se i giovani sapessero e i vecchi potessero... Linguaggi e strategie per favorire invecchiamento attivo e dialogo intergenerazionale. SCS.

Demetrio, D. (2012). Un educare che si affida a parole e racconti. Animazione Sociale, 10/2012, 15-24.

Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (2018). A connected society: a strategy for tackling loneliness. (Last access 30 May 2023)

Donizzetti, A. R., & Capone, V. (2023). Ageism and the pandemic: Risk and protective factors of well-being in older people. Geriatrics, 8(1), 14.

Donovan, N. J., & Blazer, D. G. (2020). Social isolation and loneliness in older adults: Review and commentary of a National Academies report. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(12), 1233–1244.

Eccles, A., & Qualter, P. (2020). Review: Alleviating loneliness in young people – a meta‐analysis of interventions. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 26(1), 17–33.

Elder, G.H. Jr. (ed) (1984). Life course dynamics. Trajectories and transitions 1968- 1980. Cornell University Press.

Fakoya, O. A., McCorry, N., & Donnelly, M. (2020). Loneliness and social isolation interventions for older adults: a scoping review of reviews. BMC Public Health, 20(1).

Findlay, R. A. (2003). Interventions to reduce social isolation amongst older people: Where is the evidence? Ageing & Society, 23(5), 647–658.

Findsen, B. & Formosa, M. (2015). International perspectives on older adult education: Research, policies and practice. Springer.

Fondazione Emanuela Zancan (2014). Welfare generativo. Responsabilizzare, rendere, rigenerare. La lotta alla povertà. Rapporto 2014. Il Mulino.

Fondazione Emanuela Zancan (2015). Cittadinanza generativa. La lotta alla povertà. Rapporto 2015. Il Mulino.

Formosa, M. (2019). Educational gerontology, in D. Gu & M.E. Dupre (Eds.). Encyclopedia of gerontology and population ageing. Springer, 1564-1571.

Fraser, S., Lagacé, M., Bongué, B., Ndeye, N., Guyot, J., Bechard, L., Garcia, L., Taler, V., Andrew, M., Bayly, M., Bethell, J., Chasteen, A., Elliot, V., Herron, R., Itzhak, I., Kortzman, A., Maxwell, C., McGilton, K., Middleton, L., . . . Tougas, F. (2020). Ageism and COVID-19: what does our society’s response say about us? Age and Ageing, 49(5), 692–695.

Fusco, F., Zoletto, D. (eds) (2022). Processi di invecchiamento in territori ad alta complessità socioculturale e linguistica. FrancoAngeli.

Gaggioli, A., Morganti, L., Bonfiglio, S., Leonardi, M., Cipresso, P., Serino, S., & Riva, G. (2014). Intergenerational group reminiscence: A potentially effective intervention to enhance elderly psychosocial wellbeing and to improve children’s perception of aging. Educational Gerontology, 40(7), 486–498.

Gao, Q. & Zhou, J. (eds) (2022). Human aspects of IT for the aged population. Technology in Everyday Living, HCII 2022. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 13331, 335-348.

Gecchele, M. & Meneghin, L. (a cura di) (2016). Il dialogo intergenerazionale come prassi educativa. Il Centro infanzia Girotondo delle età. ETS.

Giaccardi, C., Magatti, M. (2020). Nella fine è l’inizio. In che mondo vivremo. Il Mulino.

Gobbens, R.J.J., Van Assen, M.A.L.M., Luijkx, K.G, Wijnen-Sponselee, M.T., Schols, J.M. (2010). Determinants of frailty. JAMDA, 11(5), 356-364.

Gong, W., Sit, S. M., Wong, B. Y., Da Wu, S. Y., Lai, A. Y., Ho, S. Y., Wang, M. P., & Lam, T. H. (2022). Associations of face-to-face and instant messaging family communication and their contents with family wellbeing and personal happiness amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 13,

Hayes, T., Walker, C., Parsons, K., Arya, D., Bowman, B., Germaine, C., Lock, R., Langford, S., Peacock, S., & Thew, H. (2022). In it together! Cultivating space for intergenerational dialogue, empathy and hope in a climate of uncertainty. Children’s Geographies, 1(2022), 1-15.

Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2003). Loneliness and pathways to disease. Brain Behavior and Immunity, 17(1), 98–105.

Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). Loneliness matters: A theoretical and empirical review of consequences and mechanisms. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 40(2), 218–227.

Hawkley, L. C., Buecker, S., Kaiser, T., & Luhmann, M. (2020). Loneliness from young adulthood to old age: Explaining age differences in loneliness. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 46(1), 39–49.

Hawkley, L. C., Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. J., Masi, C. M., Thisted, R. A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2008). From social structural factors to perceptions of relationship quality and loneliness: the Chicago health, aging, and social relations study. The journals of gerontology, 63(6), S375–S384.

Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., Baker, M., Harris, T., & Stephenson, D. (2015). Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for mortality: A meta-analytic review. Perspectives on Psychological Science 10(2), 227–237.

ISTAT (2021) Il benessere equo e sostenibile in Italia. (Last access 30 May 2023)

Iversen T. N., Larsen L., Solem P. E. (2009). A conceptual analysis of ageism. Nordic Psychology, 61(3), 4–22. 10.1027/1901-2276.61.3.4

Juvonen, J., Schacter, H. L., & Lessard, L. M. (2021). Connecting electronically with friends to cope with isolation during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 38(6), 1782–1799.

Kaplan, M., Thang, L.L., Sànchez, M., & Hoffman J. (2020). Intergenerational contact zones. Place-based strategies for promoting social inclusion and belonging. Routledge.

Killgore, W. D., Taylor, E. N., Cloonan, S. A., & Dailey, N. S. (2020). Psychological resilience during the COVID-19 lockdown. Psychiatry Research-neuroimaging, 291, 113216.

Kim, J. H., & Chung, S. (2022). Is an intergenerational program effective in increasing social capital among participants? A preliminary study in Korea. Sustainability, 14(3), 1796.

Krzeczkowska, A., Spalding, D. M., McGeown, W. J., Gow, A. J., Carlson, M. C., & Nicholls, L. a. B. (2021b). A systematic review of the impacts of intergenerational engagement on older adults’ cognitive, social, and health outcomes. Ageing Research Reviews, 71, 101400.

Kuball, T., Pollmanns, C., Asbrock, F., & Jahn, G. (2023). Older adults’ stereotypes of and attitudes toward younger adults and intergenerational contact frequency. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships,

Kung, C. S., Kunz, J. S., & Shields, M. D. (2021). Economic aspects of loneliness in Australia. Australian Economic Review, 54(1), 147–163.

Langenkamp, A. (2023). The Influence of Loneliness on Perceived Connectedness and Trust Beliefs – Longitudinal Evidence from the Netherlands. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 40(7), 2298–2322.

Lauder, W., Mummery, K., Jones, M., & Caperchione, C. M. (2006). A comparison of health behaviours in lonely and non-lonely populations. Psychology Health & Medicine, 11(2), 233–245

Lay-Yee, R., Campbell, D. K., & Milne, B. J. (2021). Social attitudes and activities associated with loneliness: Findings from a New Zealand national survey of the adult population. Health & Social Care in the Community, 30(3), 1120–1132.

Lee, O. E., & Kim, H. (2018). Bridging the digital divide for older adults via intergenerational mentor-up. Research on Social Work Practice, 29(7), 786–795.

Leigh‐Hunt, N., David, B., Kristin, B., Victoria, T., Stephen, T., Nicole, V., & Woody, C. (2017). An overview of systematic reviews on the public health consequences of social isolation and loneliness. Public health, 152, 157–171.

Lim, M. H., Eres, R., & Vasan, S. (2020). Understanding loneliness in the twenty-first century: an update on correlates, risk factors, and potential solutions. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 55(7), 793–810.

Luchetti, M., Lee, J. H., Aschwanden, D., Sesker, A. A., Strickhouser, J. E., Terracciano, A., & Sutin, A. R. (2020). The trajectory of loneliness in response to COVID-19. American Psychologist, 75(7), 897–908.

Luhmann, M., Buecker, S., & Rüsberg, M. (2022). Loneliness across time and space. Nature Reviews Psycholo-gy, 2(1), 9–23.

Luhmann, M. & Hawkley, L. C. (2016). Age diferences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age. Dev. Psychol. 52, 943–959.

Luppi, E. (2015). Training to intergenerational dialogue and solidarity. Jeugdbeleid, 9(2015), 157-164.

MacLeod, S., Tkatch, R., Kraemer, S., Fellows, A., McGinn, M. D., Schaeffer, J. M., & Yeh, C. S. (2021). COVID-19 era social isolation among older adults. Geriatrics, 6(2), 52.

Malcolm, M., Frost, H., & Cowie, J. (2019). Loneliness and social isolation causal association with health-related lifestyle risk in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. Systematic Re-views, 8(1).

Mann, F., Bone, J. K., Lloyd-Evans, B., Frerichs, J., Pinfold, V., Ma, R., Wang, J., & Johnson, S. (2017). A life less lonely: the state of the art in interventions to reduce loneliness in people with mental health problems. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 52(6), 627–638.

Masi, C. M., Chen, H., Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). A meta-analysis of interventions to reduce loneliness. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15(3), 219–266.

McWhirter, B. T. (1990). Loneliness: A review of current literature, with Implications for counseling and research. Journal of Counseling and Development, 68(4), 417–422.

Mezirow, J. (2009). Transformative learning theory. In J. Mezirow, & E. W. Taylor (Eds.), Transformative learning in practice: Insights from community workplace, and higher education (pp.18-32). Jossey-Bass.

Morin, E. (2015). 7 lezioni sul pensiero globale. Raffaello Cortina.

Morin, E., Abouessalam, S. (2020). Cambiamo strada. Le 15 lezioni del Coronavirus. Raffaello Cortina.

Morrow-Howell, N., Galucia, N., & Swinford, E. (2020). Recovering from the COVID-19 Pandemic: A focus on older adults. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 32(4–5), 526–535.

Mund, M., Freuding, M. M., Möbius, K., Horn, N., & Neyer, F. J. (2019). The stability and change of loneliness across the life span: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 24(1), 24–52.

Murayama, Y., Ohba, H., Yasunaga, M., Nonaka, K., Takeuchi, R., Nishi, M., Sakuma, N., Uchida, H., Shinkai, S., & Fujiwara, Y. (2015). The effect of intergenerational programs on the mental health of elderly adults. Aging & Mental Health, 19(4), 306–314.

Musi E. (2014). Educare all’incontro tra generazioni. Vecchi e bambini insieme. Edizioni Junior.

Newman, S., & Hatton-Yeo, A. (2008). Intergenerational learning and the contributions of older people. Ageing Horizons, 8, 31-39.

Nussbaum, M.C. & Levmore, S. (2019). Invecchiare con saggezza. Dialoghi sulla vita, l’amore e i rimpianti. Il Mulino.

Nussbaumer-Streit, B., Mayr, V., Dobrescu, A., Chapman, A., Persad, E., Klerings, I., Wagner, G., Siebert, U., Christof, C., Zachariah, C., & Gartlehner, G. (2020). Quarantine alone or in combination with other public health measures to control COVID-19: a rapid review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4(2020). Art. No.: CD013574.

Peacock, S., Puussaar, A., & Crivellaro, C. (2020), Sensing our streets: Involving children in making people-centred smart cities”, in Courage, C., Borrup, T., Jackson, M.R., Legge, K., Mckeown, A., Platt, L., & Schupbach, J. (Eds) The Routledge Handbook of Placemaking (pp. 130-147).

Pennac, D. (2012). Storia di un corpo. La Feltrinelli.


Petersen, J. D. (2022). A meta-analytic review of the effects of intergenerational programs for youth and older adults. Educational Gerontology, 49(3), 175–189.

Phang, J. K., Kwan, Y. H., Yoon, S., Goh, H., Yee, W. Q., Tan, C. S., & Low, L. L. (2023). Digital intergenerational program to reduce loneliness and social isolation among older adults: Realist review. JMIR Aging, 6, e39848.

Pinazo-Hernandis, S., Sales, A., & Martinez, D. (2022). Older women’s loneliness and depression decreased by a reminiscence program in times of COVID-19, Front. Psychol. 13:802925. https://doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.802925

Prohaska, T., Vanessa, B., Annette, B., Jeannette, G., Louise, H., Brian, L., Gerard, L., Jim, L., Roger, O. 'S., & Carla, P. (2020). Consensus statement: Loneliness in older adults, the 21st century social determinant of health? BMJ Open, 10(8), e034967.

Qualter, P., Vanhalst, J., Harris, R., Van Roekel, E., Lodder, G. M., Bangee, M., Maes, M., & Verhagen, M. (2015). Loneliness across the life span. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(2), 250–264.

Ripamonti, E. (2005). Anziani e cittadinanza attiva. Imparare per sé, impegnarsi con gli altri. Unicopli.

Rook, K. S. (1984). Promoting social bonding: Strategies for helping the lonely and socially isolated. American Psychologist, 39(12), 1389–1407.

Sánchez, M., & Kaplan, M. (2014). Intergenerational learning in higher education: Making the case for multigenerational classrooms. Educational Gerontology, 40, 473-485.

Schmidt Hertha, B., Jelenc Krašovec, S., & Formosa, M. (2014). Learning across generations in Europe: Contemporary issues in older adult education. Springer.

Sen, K., Prybutok, G., & Prybutok, V. R. (2022). The use of digital technology for social wellbeing reduces social isolation in older adults: A systematic review. SSM-Population Health, 17, 101020.

Sepúlveda-Loyola, W., Rodríguez-Sánchez, I., Pérez-Rodríguez, P., Ganz, F., Torralba, R., Oliveira, D. V., and Rodríguez-Mañas, L. (2020), Impact of social isolation due to COVID-19 on health in older people: Mental and physical effects and recommendations, (Last access 30 May 2023)

Shankar, A., McMunn, A., Banks, J., & Steptoe, A. (2011). Loneliness, social isolation, and behavioral and biological health indicators in older adults. Health Psychology, 30(4), 377–385.

Smith, K. J., & Victor, C. R. (2018). Typologies of loneliness, living alone and social isolation, and their associations with physical and mental health. Ageing & Society, 39(8), 1709–1730.

Smith, K. J., & Victor, C. (2019). Typologies of loneliness, living alone and social isolation, and their associations with physical and mental health. Ageing & Society, 39(8), 1709–1730.

Steptoe, A., Shankar, A., Demakakos, P., & Wardle, J. (2013). Social isolation, loneliness, and all-cause mortality in older men and women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(15), 5797-5801.

Surkalim, D. L., Luo, M., Eres, R., Gebel, K., Van Buskirk, J., Bauman, A., & Ding, D. (2022). The prevalence of loneliness across 113 countries: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 376:e067068.

Teater, B., Chonody, J. M., & Hannan, K. (2021). Meeting social needs and loneliness in a time of social distancing under COVID-19: A comparison among young, middle, and older adults. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 31(1–4), 43–59.

Tramma, S. (2017). Pedagogia dell'invecchiare. Vivere (bene) la tarda età. FrancoAngeli.

Valtorta, N., Kanaan, M., Gilbody, S., & Hanratty, B. (2016). Loneliness, social isolation and social relationships: what are we measuring? A novel framework for classifying and comparing tools. BMJ Open, 6(4), e010799.

Victor, C. R., Burholt, V., & Martin, W. (2012). Loneliness and ethnic minority elders in Great Britain: An exploratory study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 27(1), 65–78.

United Nations, Second World Assembly on Ageing. Madrid, Spain 8-12 April 2002. Building a society for all ages ( (Last access 30 May 2023)

Welch, V., Ghogomu, E. T., Dowling, S., Choo, W. Y., Yunus, R. M., Mohd, T. a. M. T., Haitas, N., Bomze, S., Dahrouge, S., Garcia, E., Holt‐Lunstad, J., Lasgaard, M., Lim, M. H., Mulligan, K., Salzwedel, D. M., Qualter, P., Hébert, P. C., & Mikton, C. (2023). PROTOCOL: In‐person interventions to reduce social isolation and loneliness: An evidence and gap map. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 19(3),

World Health Organization (2020). Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), Situation Report-13. ncov-v3.pdf. (Last access 30 May 2023)

World Health Organization (‎2021)‎. Social isolation and loneliness among older people: advocacy brief. World Health Organization. (Last access 30 May 2023)

Xu, X., Li, J., Pham, T., Salmon, C. T., & Theng, Y. (2016). Improving psychosocial well-being of older adults through exergaming: The moderation effects of intergenerational communication and age cohorts. Games for Health Journal, 5(6), 389–397.

Zhong, S., Lee, C., Foster, M. J., & Bian, J. (2020). Intergenerational communities: A systematic literature review of intergenerational interactions and older adults’ health-related outcomes. Social Science & Medicine, 264, 113374.




How to Cite

Deluigi, R., & Ricci, A. (2023). Rebuilding “we ourselves” after the pandemic: Intergenerational dialogue as a protective factor against loneliness and social isolation in older adults. Ricerche Di Pedagogia E Didattica. Journal of Theories and Research in Education, 18(2), 17–35.